When the Amazon site was launched in 1995, followed by the heady years of dot-com mania, marketers believed they had reached nirvana with the speed, convenience, selection, and plain cool factor of online stores.
Digital technology revolutionized the way companies interacted with customers by making the research and purchasing processes more convenient. Yet research shows that companies have a long way to go in effectively using digital technologies to engage with their customers.
Just 49% of consumers say their experiences using Web sites on desktop and laptop computers are excellent, while a mere 18% of consumers say the same for shopping with mobile Web sites or apps.
The reason behind the failings of all this great technology is that loyalty is driven by positive emotions not just efficiencies. Ninety percent of purchasing decisions are made subconsciously, according to Caroline Winnett and Andrew Pohlmann of The Nielsen Company. Meanwhile, neuroscientist Antonio Damasio has found that for patients with brain damage affecting their abilities to feel emotions, making any decision at all is difficult.
By developing a concerted strategy to foster positive emotions in digital, companies can reduce churn, lower customer acquisition costs, and grow revenues per customer. “It’s getting harder and harder to put your message in front of customers effectively and efficiently,” says Tim Peter, founder of Tim Peter & Associates, an e-commerce, Internet marketing, and business strategy consultancy. “If you can get them once, you will more likely reengage them. My clients see emotional engagement as a differentiator.”
How does a company move from the robotic, unfeeling interface of technology to an experience where the customer can sense the people and brand behind it all? There’s no single method here; improving emotional affinity in digital requires a culture that’s hyper about monitoring and pleasing customers. It also begs for a hybrid approach of merging human experiences with digital, investing in omnichannel integration, and developing more creative approaches to online branding.
Here are five approaches to building stronger emotional affinity to your brand both online and off-:
1. Create the hybrid experience
Digital offers speed and convenience. To add emotion, companies need to bring in a human element so customers can get answers to questions faster or interact with an agent while they’re browsing or conducting a transaction online. That hybrid experience can pay off when e-commerce fails to deliver the satisfaction it once did. Most e-commerce sites offer a static, overwhelming experience.
The experience is particularly frustrating when a customer seeking a specific item sees thousands of results, and that frustration can have devastating results: 89% of customers surveyed by Harris Interactive said they started doing business with a competitor after a negative customer experience. Bringing in a human being – and knowing exactly when to do it – is the key to preventing negative emotions from sabotaging the overall experience. Here are some ways to do it:
- Start a conversation at the right time – and keep it going. Click-tracking technology can sense when a customer can’t find something and can initiate a click-to-call-me or chat box. Another idea: Loyalty programs typically reward customers with a few bucks back after spending large amounts of money. Instead, give loyal customers a gift of premium support on every channel they visit.
- Put a face to the conversation. In the business world, Skype video calls and Google Hangouts have brought meaningful face-to-face interaction to the remote work a high percentage of people are doing these days. Why not do the same with customers? Amazon Mayday is an innovative video tech-support service available for Kindle Fire customers. Users click on the Mayday button from their tablet, and within 15 seconds Amazon promises to initiate a video chat to help resolve the issue. Mayday even addresses a tricky privacy issue: customers can see the agents but agents cannot see the customers.
A company called LiveShop takes a different approach, offering video technology that allows customers and agents to see each other. The company’s philosophy is that eye contact helps the customer complete a task faster and leaves no room for confusion. “This is about showing customers that you know them and that you care – that you don’t view them as a faceless consumer,” says Joe Pine, co-founder of Strategic Horizons LLP and author of The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre and Every Business a Stage.
- Show them how. In a similar vein, companies could be making better use of tools such as video demonstrations and animation-based training to educate existing customers and gain new ones. Sometimes, you’ve got to see it to believe it. Pine likes Blendtec’s Will It Blend? video series, for an entertaining, visual experience of a product’s potential.5 The humor doesn’t hurt, either. In a 2011 interview, company founder Tom Dickson said that since launching the videos, sales have shot up 500%.
The future: emerging tools to better understand customer emotions
A core failing of digital business is that it’s still hard to know when a customer is irked, delighted, or confused. Soon that will change, however, as more tools become available to detect these emotional cues. Here are some examples:
- Read my lips. Software by Affectiva, for example, analyzes a person’s facial expressions by using their webcam to surmise how happy, sad, or frustrated they are at the moment. The company’s software relies on a massive data repository comprising billions of emotion data points to score a consumer’s reactions to a Web site, app, or online ad.
- Help me do it. Nadra Bank, a bank in the Ukraine, has been experimenting with a novel ATM interface that features a woman who guides a customer through a transaction. When the customer is successful, the woman smiles; if there’s a problem, her image takes on a concerned look, according to Joe Pine, author of The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre and Every Business a Stage.
- Hear my voice. Researchers have successfully created software systems capable of determining callers’ emotions during the voice-prompt process, using algorithms to determine when callers need more help or when humans need to intervene.7
Given the industry focus on commercializing affordable Big Data technologies, there’s enormous potential for bringing to market scores of new emotion analysis tools to help companies improve the digital customer experience.
2. Create an empowering employee culture
Empathetic, empowered employees are a company’s best asset. These are people who are service oriented, friendly, and calm during stressful moments and who can use technology and information to help customers at their moment of need. But such employees don’t just materialize. Companies need to provide the building blocks for success, which starts with motivation.
While boards regularly reward their top executives for their successes, the people who interact with customers every day sit in cubicles, earning just their salary or wage. “It’s been my experience that those frontline people who are out there facing the client every single day will provide the pull upward, if you can communicate to them how they fit in,” says Donna Peeples, a customer experience consultant and former chief customer experience officer at AIG. “Reward them for the differences they’re making, create career paths, and pluck the most talented out so they can help continue to drive the change.”
Companies must empower employees at the point of interaction by giving them access to the best possible information on customers: profiles, order history, customer service history, feedback, and preferences. Measure employees on customer outcomes – was the problem resolved quickly and to the customer’s satisfaction? – not on shortsighted, cost-centric metrics like call times. Train workers, survey customers, refine strategy, and then train again. After all, customers change over time; therefore customer service and customer experience strategies must change, too.
By focusing on employees first, customers will benefit. For instance, the empowered employee culture can:
- Capitalize on negative experiences. When someone goes on social media and blasts a competitor for shoddy treatment, take advantage by reaching out on behalf of your company with a kind message to help. When Arizona Public Service blew out a transformer in the middle of summer, executives knew there’d be trouble. Rather than resort to the typical silent treatment during the outage, the utility started a social media campaign, encouraging customers to help by conserving energy until the equipment was fixed, according to Curtis Bingham, executive director at the Chief Customer Officer Council. “Show that customers are being heard and are part of the solution.”
- Give customers a job. Forget online discussion rooms. Give jobs to your customers – ones they’ll happily do in exchange for a stronger voice in company direction. UK mobile phone carrier giffgaff entices customers with no contracts and has a following of passionate customers who take part in a number of operational activities. They handle customer support requests, create ads, and even provide input on strategy and pricing. “This is a billion-dollar company that is driven by its customers’ involvement,” Bingham says. Online gaming company Riot Games solicits customers to help by policing the online community for gamers who act offensively during gameplay. “By involving customers in your business, be it in resolving issues or refining strategy, you create far more powerful emotional affinity – and stronger customer engagement,” Bingham says. “This engagement goes beyond loyalty, a mere intent to repurchase.”
- Stop treating service as a cost center. When Zappos was preparing to launch its e-commerce site in 1999, people thought the company was foolish to sell shoes online, says Jon Wolske, culture evangelist for Zappos Insights, a division that provides cultural training services and events. “But the strategy was if we make returns easy and free, it alleviates a lot of the frustration of going to the mall,” he says. “Our approach since the beginning has been about making shoe buying a positive experience.” The company gives its agents the freedom to do whatever is needed to wow the customer. That means no limits on call times and the ability to throw in a perk – such as one-day shipping – when the situation warrants. “Most companies look at service as a cost center,” he says. “But Zappos invested in customer experience and that has driven loyalty, and then viral marketing comes from that.”
- Make customer experience core to hiring. Zappos reports that 40% of new customers to its Web site have been referred by a friend. The company provides many ways to search for products, free shipping in five days or less, real-time inventory so the customer will never order something that’s not in stock, and a policy not to backorder items. The culture of delivering great customer experience is a core value in hiring, Wolske says. “We look for candidates who are naturally customer oriented, not someone who we think can change.”
3. Use branding and stories to drive emotional affinity
Madison Avenue has long tried to appeal to customers’ emotions, but mobile app and Web site designers have taken a traditional IT approach: functionality and speed rule. Given the power of multimedia and social networking, though, there’s no reason why digital marketing should be stuck in the past.
One company that gets the possibilities is Coca-Cola, which has filmed dozens of videos that have gone viral on YouTube, spreading Coke’s simple emotional message of happiness – for a nominal investment compared to TV advertising, says Pine. In one video, travelers at Dubai International Airport on their way home for the holidays receive a surprise of extra luggage tags from Coca-Cola so they can bring home gifts and supplies to friends and family.
Here are a few ways to develop emotional affinity to your brand through digital:
- Segment messaging. Tim Peter, who works frequently with hospitality customers, suggests segmenting lists into such categories as repeat versus one-time guests and business travelers versus leisure travelers. Then tell a distinct, emotional story to engage each segment and drive more business, he advises.
- Understand the emotional impact behind the message. The companies that do a poor job of digital storytelling aren’t clear on how their messages really make customers feel. Consider the controversial Super Bowl ad by Nationwide Insurance, “Make Safe Happen,” in which a boy ponders the life that he will never have, since he died in an accident.9 The link to insurance, which was tenuous at best, was overwhelmed by the negative emotions generated by the ad.
- Use humor. An upstart has a lot to prove, particularly in a commodity market such as razor blades. Dollar Shave Club is an e-commerce company that sells blades for a dollar and uses tongue-in-cheek videos to throw water in the face of high-tech blade manufacturers. Here’s one memorable segment: “Are our blades any good? No. Our blades are [expletive]-ing great!”
- Shock when appropriate. Sometimes, audiences will give permission to be shocked and saddened, but only when the situation merits it. Consider the award-winning spots for TV, print, and online by the Meth Project, a nonprofit foundation that relies on donations and volunteers to fight meth use. The campaigns show images of teens with blistered mouths and lifeless eyes and emergency room scenes with phrases like: “No one thinks they’ll end up here. Meth will change that.”
4. Bring joy across the omnichannel experience
In retail and consumer goods industries, delivering perfectly executed processes for the customer is critical for gaining market share. There’s too much competition to screw up the order process or to have surly, poorly trained employees working your cash registers and phones. Expectations have risen so high and switching from one merchant to another online is so easy, that the slightest hiccup can frustrate customers enough to leave you. And customers have applied these expectations across the board – offline must be as seamless as online, and the two should be connected at the hip. Customers don’t think in terms of separate channels such as mobile apps, e-commerce, and catalogs; it’s all the same to them and it had better be awesome, everywhere, or emotions will run high.
Follow them wherever they go
Connecting all the emotional dots starts with tracking what customers are doing and determining which actions might signal frustration. Rethink interactions from the customer perspective. Let’s say a customer calls a company after browsing its Web site and not finding what she wants. The agent should be able to shadow the customer on the site and point out items that she might like and, if dealing with a repeat customer, recognize her and suggest other ideas based on past history.
T-Mobile agents are trained to follow a customer from one channel to another, such as from a Twitter exchange to a phone call. This eliminates the aggravating ping-ponging between agents and the need for a customer to re-explain the problem to a new person. It requires integrated call-center software so that the agent can click between channels on one screen while viewing customer history. It also requires employees to have the skills to navigate those multiple channels effortlessly.
Here are three ways to build emotional affinity in an omnichannel experience:
- Treat the customer the same everywhere. An online promotion should also be available in a physical store and vice versa. Consider a customer who makes an online purchase and soon after returns to the merchant’s physical store and spends roughly the same dollar amount. She receives a discount based on her purchase price, even though she didn’t receive that same offer online. Brands need to be consistent and understand who their customers are, end to end.
- Create a frictionless process. Sometimes the strongest positive emotion possible is when everything works perfectly and expectations are exceeded. “Amazon has digitally replicated the perfect customer interaction and by doing so has all but eliminated the need to talk to anyone,” says Bingham. “It’s anticipated buying needs with ratings, reviews, and social proof, and it has provided ready-made solutions to the most common problems.”
Foundational to doing this is integrating data from CRM and marketing systems,social media feeds, e-commerce and accounting systems, and trend data and analytics. Doing so gives the right context for meeting a customer’s needs when the time is right.
Real-time integration of systems can prevent the frustrating experience of a customer ordering a product needed now, only to discover later that the item is backordered for weeks. A frictionless process prevents that problem by alerting customers of inventory status prior to purchase. It prevents other issues, too, such as the often-painful chore of returning products and confirming refunds.
- Look for moments of truth. Determining what exactly customers want in a digital experience is challenging. “Focus on improving what you can really change,” says Denis Pombriant, a CRM analyst and author of Solve for the Customer. He suggests using surveys, social media, and journey-mapping tools to discover the most important moments of truth for customers. For a software company, that might be the optimal window of time to onboard a new customer. For another company, having someone tweet that they hate the company might present an opportunity to connect and create a positive interaction. Pombriant explains: “It’s filtering all these conversations using the tools we have and relating them back to the business.”
Marketers have been touting the nirvana of one-to-one marketing and personalization for years. It’s unclear, though, which customers actually care about this. Some consider it a borderline privacy invasion when a company tracks their every move and pushes offers based on something they looked at, downloaded, or purchased recently.
As well, personalization isn’t always appropriate. When online shoppers were simply looking at a product category, ads that matched their prior Web browsing interests were ineffective, an MIT study found. Yet after consumers had visited a review site to seek out information and were closer to a purchase, personalized content became more effective than generic ads.
Another study found that personalization didn’t make a huge difference to a customer unless the individual had low levels of satisfaction with the brand.
Yet companies can strike a chord by being more relevant with communications based on someone’s customer profile and past behavior or by easing purchasing processes, such as by prepopulating forms for the customer based on previously collected data. Too often, customers share data only to receive coupons and recommendations for things they never buy. First, understand better exactly what your consumers would buy based on past purchases. Then offer something that they hadn’t thought about purchasing but might consider based on an intelligent analysis of their profile, interaction, and order data.
Timing is also critical. Instead of spamming customers and prospects with messages when they’re not ready to buy, wait for them to come back to your site or app, recognize them, and then deliver something new and exciting.
Given the lower costs for processing and storing terabytes of data, companies can now feasibly combine and crunch all the customer data points needed to drive relevant interactions. Start with in-memory technology for fast processing, and then add a repository to store all the transactional, mobile, sensor, and Web data points detailing every customer interaction. That system should contain line-item data to make correlations, such as the fact that Customer X always buys Product A and Product B together. This level of detail provides the ability to predict what the customer might buy next and when or offers an insight into why the customer didn’t buy. Ideally the repository will connect with inventory systems so that the company is confident it can serve up a particular offer at a given point in time. Large companies with legacy systems and disconnected processes will have a harder time doing this and at considerable expense. Yet someday soon a connected customer activity platform will be table stakes for doing business online.
Getting emotion right
Developing meaningful connections with customers in digital is not easy: how do you measure success? If a company can attach revenue growth or a reduction in customer churn to a new strategy for emotional engagement, that’s priceless. But without those metrics, it’s hard to know if strategies are working. Follow these tips for success:
- Get customer feedback, again and again. Survey and collect data on different segments of customers to determine what drives positive emotions and what doesn’t.
- Commit to process excellence. If marketers spend enormous amounts of time and money creating emotional engagement through offline programs yet maintain sites and apps that are hard to use, there’s a huge disconnect, according to Curtis Bingham, executive director, Chief Customer Officer Council. “You’ve got to fulfill the brand promise across the company. If a customer can’t find anyone to help them, that can cause irreparable damage,” he says.
- Invest in technology but fix broken processes first. “Clienteling” applications (typically installed on mobile devices to offer sales associates a complete view of customer activity and preferences across all channels), customer activity databases, omnichannel call-center solutions, and cloud-based infrastructure for integrating customer data are all great tactics for gleaning insights into making customers happy. First, though, figure out what isn’t working well for customers in your digital channels. “If you automate broken processes, you just enabled yourself to infuriate more customers more quickly than you ever did before,” says Donna Peeples, a customer experience consultant and former chief customer experience officer at AIG.
Emotions never stop
Answering the question “what do customers want?” is a never-ending process. Clearly customers don’t just want a product or service quickly, for the right price. Customers return to companies because they have superb emotional experiences: Starbucks isn’t the only company that makes tasty gourmet coffee drinks, but it’s always pleasant to walk into a Starbucks store and buy a drink. Customers return to restaurants, hair salons, and car repair shops because of the people − and the subliminal feeling that those people actually care about them as a person.
In digital, the emotional connection is harder to establish but it’s just as important. Customers everywhere are pressed for time, money, and patience. According to Peeples, achieving that emotional connection requires a company-wide commitment to the customer experience. She said, “It must be clearly communicated that it’s not a one-time thing. It’s a campaign not unlike a political campaign and companies have got to push the message down from the top.”