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The Big Data Job Boom

John R. Platt

Everywhere you go, everything you do, you’re generating data, and so is everyone around you. big data jobYour mobile phone usage, your internet browsing behavior, the way you drive your car, the number of times you buy turkey at the grocery store…all of that data is being collected and used by companies around the world. The massive growth in this information — which has exploded in volume, velocity and variety — has given rise to a new name for a new field: Big data.

But the explosion of data has also given rise to a tremendous need for skilled professionals capable of dealing with all of this information. In fact, the numbers of people needed in big data are simply staggering. According to one new projection from McKinsey & Company, the U.S. alone faces a shortfall of 140,000 to 190,000 big data professionals in the next five years. Another recent study from Gartner suggests that 4.4 million IT jobs worldwide will be needed to support big data by 2015. That’s a lot of potential employment for the right people.

Too Much Data, Not Enough People

But where will all of these new employees come from? While some of those thousands or millions of people will likely end up working in traditional areas such as storage or infrastructure or security, experts say the data scientists that are truly needed to make sense of all of this data remain a rare breed.

“The ability to successfully harness big data requires a unique combination of skills and attributes,” says Richard Rodts, manager of global analytics academic programs at IBM. “On the technical side, it’s essential to understand how to operate analytics technology solutions to read into the data for hidden insights and build predictive models that help business decision-makers chart smarter courses for their organizations.” Beyond that, it’s important to understand the business model and culture of your company or client so you can ask the right questions of your data. And then, Rodts says, “there are the very human attributes, such as a knack for both strategic and creative thinking, the ability to collaborate with colleagues across the business, and strong communication skills that enable you to convey data-driven findings to senior decision-makers in a compelling way.”

That’s a lot of skills for a single person. As Mark A. Herschberg, CTO of Madison Logic puts it, “That combination doesn’t exactly grow on trees.”

So What Does a Big Data Person Do?

The roots of big data lie in the older, still valid term business intelligence. “Big data is just business intelligence on steroids,” says Marty Carney, CEO of WCI. “People doing BI data warehousing can do big data. They just need more experience dealing with bigger data sets and larger architectures.”

Rodts takes it a bit further. “Data scientists or analytics professionals are part digital trend-spotter and part storyteller,” he says. “These are people, teams and centers of excellence at businesses and organizations who sift through vast amounts of data to uncover insights that can yield revenue-growing opportunities, spot risks before they occur, save money, time — and even lives.”

The exact tasks for a big-data professional can vary depending on the goals at a particular company or project. “We start with a very simple question,” says Samer Forzley, VP of marketing at the data-management company Pythian. “What are you trying to achieve from a business point of view? Are you trying to save money? Are you trying to increase revenue? Do you need to create insight on the fly? Are you trying to create a condition engine on your website that will recommend other products?” Each answer has a different set of solutions, he says.

Meanwhile, a lot of the work being done in big data today isn’t directly analysis but the transition from older systems in silo, legacy databases. “The biggest enemy of big data is silo data,” says Ali Riaz, CEO of Attivio. Companies may have been collecting disparate forms of data in various silos for years, but getting the full value of that information is a step many aren’t ready to take. “When we talk about big data, we’re talking about actually pulling all of your structured and unstructured information assets together,” Riaz says. “We can’t get to the big-data goals if everyone is married to smaller data.”

Getting In

To help address the need for big data professionals, several universities around the country have added new data analytics programs. Some, like the program at the University of Tennessee, focus not just on the technology but the business side of big data. “We think it is really important that our students have the technical skills, but that they also have some business savvy and understand the importance of subject-matter expertise in deciding both how you collect the data and how you will analyze it,” says Dr. Kenneth Gilbert, head of the university’s business analytics department. Toward that end, the school’s MS in business analytics program includes concentrations on teamwork, giving presentations to managers, and related skills.

For coursework, the best place to start is with statistics, says Dr. Olly Downs, senior VP of Data Sciences at Globys, who recently helped assemble the curriculum for the new data sciences certificate program at the University of Washington. But statistics alone isn’t enough, and Downs suggests that students get to know distributed computation and programs such as Hadoop, Python and R. At that point, you can “start getting into data and visualizing it and gaining insight from it,” he says. The next step is to start to understand how to communicate and visualize the output of your data, since a key part of every data scientist’s job is getting managers to understand their conclusions.

Unlike more traditional data fields — which often specialized in a single tool — working in big data requires a broad knowledge base. “You can’t know just one tool,” says Riaz. “You have to be multifunctional. You have to be multidimensional.”

Even with the need for multidimensionality, Riaz suggests finding the big-data specialty that appeals most to you by talking to data scientists who are already in the field to see what they do. “Then you map it to who you are,” he says. “Are you an infrastructure guy, or are you a board-level guy? Do you want to interact with people? Do you want to educate? Do you want to consume? Do you want to make decisions? Do you want to enable? Do you want to drive?” He suggests talking to as many people as you can, being open to trying new things, and applying for internships. “Don’t get in a decision mode until you have finished your discovery mode.”

Once you’re in the field, it’s important to keep moving forward. “Get into a continuous learning mode,” Riaz says. “What it means to be a data scientist today is going to radically change the next time a big new technology comes your way.”

What’s Next?

Although companies area already basing more decisions than ever on data, experts say the full scope of how big data will impact business remains to be seen. “I have a colleague who compares the whole big data thing to Eisenhower’s interstate system,” Gilbert says. “It’s going to create business opportunities that people can’t even imagine at this point.”

But even with its rapid growth, big data may actually be due for a shakeup in the next few years. In part, because it is so new. “Big data is in a way not fully defined yet because it is still emerging,” Forzley says. The rapid expansion we see today could eventually cause a similar contraction as processes work themselves out – and as companies realize that they may have hired too many people. “We’re going to find efficiencies,” says Riaz, who expects the short-term projections of the number of people needed in the field to fall considerably by the end of the decade.

According to Downs, the role of data scientists will continue to evolve. “Data scientists are no longer going to just be modelers and visualizers of data,” he predicts. “They will also be creating near-product-worthy pieces of software that a software engineer can then integrate into a bigger system.”

Experts say the future of the field could bring more regulation to protect consumers’ data, but it will certainly require more security. “Now that we’re housing more sensitive information, you’re going to have to have more locks on your door and more gates around your castle and more guard dogs and policemen,” Carney says. “The securitizing of big data is going to be a huge business,” he predicts.

The biggest risk for the future of big data may be entrenched business practices that don’t yet see the value of analytics. Gilbert points at McKinsey’s study, which predicts a need not just for a few hundred thousand big-data professionals but also for 1.5 million data-savvy managers. “What is going to determine the winners and losers in the business world are the ones that learn how to use this new resource for strategic advantage,” he says.

This article originally appeared on IEEE and has been republished with permission. 

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How Machine Learning Will Change Customer Personas Forever

Andre Smith

Does your business use customer personas? Before long, you’ll be able to get rid of them for good. It’s not because they haven’t worked, but years ago there was nothing else available. Soon, artificial intelligence is going to do everything for us.

Thanks to machine learning, computers will soon know your customers better than your customers know themselves (it’s actually a bit scary, when you think about it). Let’s take a closer look at some of the changes we can expect to see.

More efficient targeting of new customers

Customer personas have historically been based on demographics like age, sex, and marital status. Eventually, they moved onto behavioral personas, which definitely helped companies define their ideal customers more effectively.

But they don’t follow customers’ online behaviors in detail, something you’ll soon be able to do using software. Browsing habits and social media use are far more likely to tell you what people want, which can help you acquire new customers.

People are evolving constantly

If you offer a product that doesn’t fundamentally change much—like NBN Internet in Australia, for example—would you continue going after the same potential customers year after year? If so, you can bet that you’ll eventually lose out to the competition. Customer avatars should be changed on a regular basis, as people change, but that doesn’t always happen. Computers will do it without you even asking them to.

Machine learning is more cost-effective

One reason why humans don’t update personas is because doing the research is expensive. When machine learning takes over, the cost will drop to almost nothing, even when for large-scale products or services.

That will be a great help to companies involved in markets around the world, as machines can able to keep up with everything on a localized level in every city, regardless of geography.

Customer personas are basically guesswork

The most fantastic avatar in the world is basically just guesswork, so even if your target audience conversion rate improves, it’s likely because you happened to guess correctly.

Computers are much better at guesswork than humans are. In fact, in the medical industry, machine learning has reached the stage where computers can often diagnose cancer more accurately than doctors. Similarly, machine learning technology will be able to effectively guess the ideal customer for your products.

Employees will have more time

How will machine learning affect employees? It will free up more time for them to focus on boosting sales—a big plus for employers.

The job of the marketing team will also become much easier in the future. With machine learning giving team members more time to focus on specific tasks, they will be able hone and sharpen their skills—another win-win.

Only a matter of time

Old-school customer personas worked when TV adverts were a primary marketing tool. But these days most of us spend our time facing a screen of some sort, and money is made online.

To learn more about machine learning, check out Digitalist Magazine’s Machine Learning Perspectives 2017 Series.

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About Andre Smith

An Internet, Marketing and E-Commerce specialist with several years of experience in the industry. He has watched as the world of online business has grown and adapted to new technologies, and he has made it his mission to help keep businesses informed and up to date.

Google: The Search For The Democratization Of Artificial Intelligence Leads To The Cloud [VIDEO]

Shelly Dutton

For Google, the relentless search for answers is more than search algorithms. It’s the core of every innovation, ranging from YouTube and Android to self-driving cars. And for its 60,000 employees scattered across 50 countries, this mission is bringing it closer and closer to artificial intelligence, including machine learning.

During his SAPPHIRE NOW session, “Empower Intelligent Enterprises with Machine Learning from Google and SAP,” Francisco Uribe, head of product at Google, shared a simple vision for machine learning and AI: an opportunity to shape new business processes and customer experiences made possible through automated access to relevant information – structured and unstructured.

From Francisco’s perspective, the cloud is the best vehicle for AI capabilities. “At Google, we fundamentally believe the ideal place for AI is the cloud. For this reason, we’re making huge investments in the cloud machine-learning platform that will emerge in the next few years as a powerful tool that any developer and customer can use as an onramp onto this field.”

Through the cloud, Google envisions the democratization of AI across three areas:

1. Computing

The computing requirements of machine-learning are immense. A model today could quickly post thousands of millions of parameters generated from billions of connections. In this case, training employees on these models and servicing them are not a small endeavor. Through a cloud engine tool, companies can harness the power of an open-source, deep-learning library. Meanwhile, the cloud allows training and servicing at scale and with a greater focus on performance.

2. Algorithms 

Even if a company has the right computing capability, AI remains one of the most complex endeavors in computer science. A set of predefined AI models can help businesses solve common machine learning tasks without the need to acquire additional expertise. Use cases include understanding images and speech, translating text, and parsing natural language. 

3. Talents and expertise

Like any technology, some training is needed to extend and reap the full potential of artificial intelligence. Google created an advanced solutions lab that can be used to train the workforce on AI – and the same curriculum and courses used to train its engineers are now available to its customers. This opportunity enabled businesses to understand the benefits of AI better and solve their toughest problems with machine learning.

By making artificial intelligence and machine learning technology available, every business can leverage an enterprise brain to connect information and derive insights from millions of transactions generated by various systems. The benefits of this approach are more than automating processes, easing decision making, and creating new efficiencies; they’re about uncovering global information trends that have never been identified before.

Want to take advantage of Google’s strategies and tools for democratizing artificial intelligence and machine learning? Watch the replay of the SAPPHIRE NOW session, “Empower Intelligent Enterprises with Machine Learning from Google and SAP,” to learn how.

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Heroes in the Race to Save Antibiotics

Dr. David Delaney, Joseph Miles, Walt Ellenberger, Saravana Chandran, and Stephanie Overby

Last August, a woman arrived at a Reno, Nevada, hospital and told the attending doctors that she had recently returned from an extended trip to India, where she had broken her right thighbone two years ago. The woman, who was in her 70s, had subsequently developed an infection in her thigh and hip for which she was hospitalized in India several times. The Reno doctors recognized that the infection was serious—and the visit to India, where antibiotic-resistant bacteria runs rampant, raised red flags.

When none of the 14 antibiotics the physicians used to treat the woman worked, they sent a sample of the bacterium to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for testing. The CDC confirmed the doctors’ worst fears: the woman had a class of microbe called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Carbapenems are a powerful class of antibiotics used as last-resort treatment for multidrug-resistant infections. The CDC further found that, in this patient’s case, the pathogen was impervious to all 26 antibiotics approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

In other words, there was no cure.

This is just the latest alarming development signaling the end of the road for antibiotics as we know them. In September, the woman died from septic shock, in which an infection takes over and shuts down the body’s systems, according to the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Other antibiotic options, had they been available, might have saved the Nevada woman. But the solution to the larger problem won’t be a new drug. It will have to be an entirely new approach to the diagnosis of infectious disease, to the use of antibiotics, and to the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)—all enabled by new technology.

But that new technology is not being implemented fast enough to prevent what former CDC director Tom Frieden has nicknamed nightmare bacteria. And the nightmare is becoming scarier by the year. A 2014 British study calculated that 700,000 people die globally each year because of AMR. By 2050, the global cost of antibiotic resistance could grow to 10 million deaths and US$100 trillion a year, according to a 2014 estimate. And the rate of AMR is growing exponentially, thanks to the speed with which humans serving as hosts for these nasty bugs can move among healthcare facilities—or countries. In the United States, for example, CRE had been seen only in North Carolina in 2000; today it’s nationwide.

Abuse and overuse of antibiotics in healthcare and livestock production have enabled bacteria to both mutate and acquire resistant genes from other organisms, resulting in truly pan-drug resistant organisms. As ever-more powerful superbugs continue to proliferate, we are potentially facing the deadliest and most costly human-made catastrophe in modern times.

“Without urgent, coordinated action by many stakeholders, the world is headed for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries which have been treatable for decades can once again kill,” said Dr. Keiji Fukuda, assistant director-general for health security for the World Health Organization (WHO).

Even if new antibiotics could solve the problem, there are obstacles to their development. For one thing, antibiotics have complex molecular structures, which slows the discovery process. Further, they aren’t terribly lucrative for pharmaceutical manufacturers: public health concerns call for new antimicrobials to be financially accessible to patients and used conservatively precisely because of the AMR issue, which reduces the financial incentives to create new compounds. The last entirely new class of antibiotic was introduced 30 year ago. Finally, bacteria will develop resistance to new antibiotics as well if we don’t adopt new approaches to using them.

Technology can play the lead role in heading off this disaster. Vast amounts of data from multiple sources are required for better decision making at all points in the process, from tracking or predicting antibiotic-resistant disease outbreaks to speeding the potential discovery of new antibiotic compounds. However, microbes will quickly adapt and resist new medications, too, if we don’t also employ systems that help doctors diagnose and treat infection in a more targeted and judicious way.

Indeed, digital tools can help in all four actions that the CDC recommends for combating AMR: preventing infections and their spread, tracking resistance patterns, improving antibiotic use, and developing new diagnostics and treatment.

Meanwhile, individuals who understand both the complexities of AMR and the value of technologies like machine learning, human-computer interaction (HCI), and mobile applications are working to develop and advocate for solutions that could save millions of lives.

Keeping an Eye Out for Outbreaks

Like others who are leading the fight against AMR, Dr. Steven Solomon has no illusions about the difficulty of the challenge. “It is the single most complex problem in all of medicine and public health—far outpacing the complexity and the difficulty of any other problem that we face,” says Solomon, who is a global health consultant and former director of the CDC’s Office of Antimicrobial Resistance.

Solomon wants to take the battle against AMR beyond the laboratory. In his view, surveillance—tracking and analyzing various data on AMR—is critical, particularly given how quickly and widely it spreads. But surveillance efforts are currently fraught with shortcomings. The available data is fragmented and often not comparable. Hospitals fail to collect the representative samples necessary for surveillance analytics, collecting data only on those patients who experience resistance and not on those who get better. Laboratories use a wide variety of testing methods, and reporting is not always consistent or complete.

Surveillance can serve as an early warning system. But weaknesses in these systems have caused public health officials to consistently underestimate the impact of AMR in loss of lives and financial costs. That’s why improving surveillance must be a top priority, says Solomon, who previously served as chair of the U.S. Federal Interagency Task Force on AMR and has been tracking the advance of AMR since he joined the U.S. Public Health Service in 1981.

A Collaborative Diagnosis

Ineffective surveillance has also contributed to huge growth in the use of antibiotics when they aren’t warranted. Strong patient demand and financial incentives for prescribing physicians are blamed for antibiotics abuse in China. India has become the largest consumer of antibiotics on the planet, in part because they are prescribed or sold for diarrheal diseases and upper respiratory infections for which they have limited value. And many countries allow individuals to purchase antibiotics over the counter, exacerbating misuse and overuse.

In the United States, antibiotics are improperly prescribed 50% of the time, according to CDC estimates. One study of adult patients visiting U.S. doctors to treat respiratory problems found that more than two-thirds of antibiotics were prescribed for conditions that were not infections at all or for infections caused by viruses—for which an antibiotic would do nothing. That’s 27 million courses of antibiotics wasted a year—just for respiratory problems—in the United States alone.

And even in countries where there are national guidelines for prescribing antibiotics, those guidelines aren’t always followed. A study published in medical journal Family Practice showed that Swedish doctors, both those trained in Sweden and those trained abroad, inconsistently followed rules for prescribing antibiotics.

Solomon strongly believes that, worldwide, doctors need to expand their use of technology in their offices or at the bedside to guide them through a more rational approach to antibiotic use. Doctors have traditionally been reluctant to adopt digital technologies, but Solomon thinks that the AMR crisis could change that. New digital tools could help doctors and hospitals integrate guidelines for optimal antibiotic prescribing into their everyday treatment routines.

“Human-computer interactions are critical, as the amount of information available on antibiotic resistance far exceeds the ability of humans to process it,” says Solomon. “It offers the possibility of greatly enhancing the utility of computer-assisted physician order entry (CPOE), combined with clinical decision support.” Healthcare facilities could embed relevant information and protocols at the point of care, guiding the physician through diagnosis and prescription and, as a byproduct, facilitating the collection and reporting of antibiotic use.

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital’s antibiotic stewardship division has deployed a software program that gathers information from electronic medical records, order entries, computerized laboratory and pathology reports, and more. The system measures baseline antimicrobial use, dosing, duration, costs, and use patterns. It also analyzes bacteria and trends in their susceptibilities and helps with clinical decision making and prescription choices. The goal, says Dr. David Haslam, who heads the program, is to decrease the use of “big gun” super antibiotics in favor of more targeted treatment.

While this approach is not yet widespread, there is consensus that incorporating such clinical-decision support into electronic health records will help improve quality of care, contain costs, and reduce overtreatment in healthcare overall—not just in AMR. A 2013 randomized clinical trial finds that doctors who used decision-support tools were significantly less likely to order antibiotics than those in the control group and prescribed 50% fewer broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Putting mobile devices into doctors’ hands could also help them accept decision support, believes Solomon. Last summer, Scotland’s National Health Service developed an antimicrobial companion app to give practitioners nationwide mobile access to clinical guidance, as well as an audit tool to support boards in gathering data for local and national use.

“The immediacy and the consistency of the input to physicians at the time of ordering antibiotics may significantly help address the problem of overprescribing in ways that less-immediate interventions have failed to do,” Solomon says. In addition, handheld devices with so-called lab-on-a-chip  technology could be used to test clinical specimens at the bedside and transmit the data across cellular or satellite networks in areas where infrastructure is more limited.

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning can also become invaluable technology collaborators to help doctors more precisely diagnose and treat infection. In such a system, “the physician and the AI program are really ‘co-prescribing,’” says Solomon. “The AI can handle so much more information than the physician and make recommendations that can incorporate more input on the type of infection, the patient’s physiologic status and history, and resistance patterns of recent isolates in that ward, in that hospital, and in the community.”

Speed Is Everything

Growing bacteria in a dish has never appealed to Dr. James Davis, a computational biologist with joint appointments at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago Computation Institute. The first of a growing breed of computational biologists, Davis chose a PhD advisor in 2004 who was steeped in bioinformatics technology “because you could see that things were starting to change,” he says. He was one of the first in his microbiology department to submit a completely “dry” dissertation—that is, one that was all digital with nothing grown in a lab.

Upon graduation, Davis wanted to see if it was possible to predict whether an organism would be susceptible or resistant to a given antibiotic, leading him to explore the potential of machine learning to predict AMR.

As the availability of cheap computing power has gone up and the cost of genome sequencing has gone down, it has become possible to sequence a pathogen sample in order to detect its AMR resistance mechanisms. This could allow doctors to identify the nature of an infection in minutes instead of hours or days, says Davis.

Davis is part of a team creating a giant database of bacterial genomes with AMR metadata for the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC), funded by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to collect data on priority pathogens, such as tuberculosis and gonorrhea.

Because the current inability to identify microbes quickly is one of the biggest roadblocks to making an accurate diagnosis, the team’s work is critically important. The standard method for identifying drug resistance is to take a sample from a wound, blood, or urine and expose the resident bacteria to various antibiotics. If the bacterial colony continues to divide and thrive despite the presence of a normally effective drug, it indicates resistance. The process typically takes between 16 and 20 hours, itself an inordinate amount of time in matters of life and death. For certain strains of antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis, though, such testing can take a week. While physicians are waiting for test results, they often prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics or make a best guess about what drug will work based on their knowledge of what’s happening in their hospital, “and in the meantime, you either get better,” says Davis, “or you don’t.”

At PATRIC, researchers are using machine-learning classifiers to identify regions of the genome involved in antibiotic resistance that could form the foundation for a “laboratory free” process for predicting resistance. Being able to identify the genetic mechanisms of AMR and predict the behavior of bacterial pathogens without petri dishes could inform clinical decision making and improve reaction time. Thus far, the researchers have developed machine-learning classifiers for identifying antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii (a big player in hospital-acquired infection), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (a.k.a. MRSA, a worldwide problem), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (a leading cause of bacterial meningitis), with accuracies ranging from 88% to 99%.

Houston Methodist Hospital, which uses the PATRIC database, is researching multidrug-resistant bacteria, specifically MRSA. Not only does resistance increase the cost of care, but people with MRSA are 64% more likely to die than people with a nonresistant form of the infection, according to WHO. Houston Methodist is investigating the molecular genetic causes of drug resistance in MRSA in order to identify new treatment approaches and help develop novel antimicrobial agents.

The Hunt for a New Class of Antibiotics

There are antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and then there’s Clostridium difficile—a.k.a. C. difficile—a bacterium that attacks the intestines even in young and healthy patients in hospitals after the use of antibiotics.

It is because of C. difficile that Dr. L. Clifford McDonald jumped into the AMR fight. The epidemiologist was finishing his work analyzing the spread of SARS in Toronto hospitals in 2004 when he turned his attention to C. difficile, convinced that the bacteria would become more common and more deadly. He was right, and today he’s at the forefront of treating the infection and preventing the spread of AMR as senior advisor for science and integrity in the CDC’s Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. “[AMR] is an area that we’re funding heavily…insofar as the CDC budget can fund anything heavily,” says McDonald, whose group has awarded $14 million in contracts for innovative anti-AMR approaches.

Developing new antibiotics is a major part of the AMR battle. The majority of new antibiotics developed in recent years have been variations of existing drug classes. It’s been three decades since the last new class of antibiotics was introduced. Less than 5% of venture capital in pharmaceutical R&D is focused on antimicrobial development. A 2008 study found that less than 10% of the 167 antibiotics in development at the time had a new “mechanism of action” to deal with multidrug resistance. “The low-hanging fruit [of antibiotic development] has been picked,” noted a WHO report.

Researchers will have to dig much deeper to develop novel medicines. Machine learning could help drug developers sort through much larger data sets and go about the capital-intensive drug development process in a more prescriptive fashion, synthesizing those molecules most likely to have an impact.

McDonald believes that it will become easier to find new antibiotics if we gain a better understanding of the communities of bacteria living in each of us—as many as 1,000 different types of microbes live in our intestines, for example. Disruption to those microbial communities—our “microbiome”—can herald AMR. McDonald says that Big Data and machine learning will be needed to unlock our microbiomes, and that’s where much of the medical community’s investment is going.

He predicts that within five years, hospitals will take fecal samples or skin swabs and sequence the microorganisms in them as a kind of pulse check on antibiotic resistance. “Just doing the bioinformatics to sort out what’s there and the types of antibiotic resistance that might be in that microbiome is a Big Data challenge,” McDonald says. “The only way to make sense of it, going forward, will be advanced analytic techniques, which will no doubt include machine learning.”

Reducing Resistance on the Farm

Bringing information closer to where it’s needed could also help reduce agriculture’s contribution to the antibiotic resistance problem. Antibiotics are widely given to livestock to promote growth or prevent disease. In the United States, more kilograms of antibiotics are administered to animals than to people, according to data from the FDA.

One company has developed a rapid, on-farm diagnostics tool to provide livestock producers with more accurate disease detection to make more informed management and treatment decisions, which it says has demonstrated a 47% to 59% reduction in antibiotic usage. Such systems, combined with pressure or regulations to reduce antibiotic use in meat production, could also help turn the AMR tide.

Breaking Down Data Silos Is the First Step

Adding to the complexity of the fight against AMR is the structure and culture of the global healthcare system itself. Historically, healthcare has been a siloed industry, notorious for its scattered approach focused on transactions rather than healthy outcomes or the true value of treatment. There’s no definitive data on the impact of AMR worldwide; the best we can do is infer estimates from the information that does exist.

The biggest issue is the availability of good data to share through mobile solutions, to drive HCI clinical-decision support tools, and to feed supercomputers and machine-learning platforms. “We have a fragmented healthcare delivery system and therefore we have fragmented information. Getting these sources of data all into one place and then enabling them all to talk to each other has been problematic,” McDonald says.

Collecting, integrating, and sharing AMR-related data on a national and ultimately global scale will be necessary to better understand the issue. HCI and mobile tools can help doctors, hospitals, and public health authorities collect more information while advanced analytics, machine learning, and in-memory computing can enable them to analyze that data in close to real time. As a result, we’ll better understand patterns of resistance from the bedside to the community and up to national and international levels, says Solomon. The good news is that new technology capabilities like AI and new potential streams of data are coming online as an era of data sharing in healthcare is beginning to dawn, adds McDonald.

The ideal goal is a digitally enabled virtuous cycle of information and treatment that could save millions of dollars, lives, and perhaps even civilization if we can get there. D!

Read more thought provoking articles in the latest issue of the Digitalist Magazine, Executive Quarterly.


About the Authors:

Dr. David Delaney is Chief Medical Officer for SAP.

Joseph Miles is Global Vice President, Life Sciences, for SAP.

Walt Ellenberger is Senior Director Business Development, Healthcare Transformation and Innovation, for SAP.

Saravana Chandran is Senior Director, Advanced Analytics, for SAP.

Stephanie Overby is an independent writer and editor focused on the intersection of business and technology.

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Small And Midsize Businesses Have The Capacity To Drive Europe’s Future As A Digital Superpower

Katja Mehl

Part 10 of the “Road to Digital Transformation” series

Representing 99.8% of all companies throughout Europe, small and midsize businesses have tremendous power when it comes to impacting the region’s economy. One innovation at a time, they’re transforming entire industries, propelling emerging industries forward with adjacent offerings, and even supersizing a favorite childhood toy to make living conditions better for the poor and homeless. But perhaps the greatest evolution is found in the growing adoption of technology among firms.

According to the IDC InfoBrief “The Next Steps in Digital Transformation: How Small and Midsize Companies Are Applying Technology to Meet Key Business Goals with Insights for Europe,” sponsored by SAP, 35.4% of all European firms feel that their adoption of digital technology is either advanced or well underway. Germany and France are great examples of countries that are embracing advanced business networks and automation technology – such as the Internet of Things – to boost productivity and computerize or consolidate roles left empty due to long-term labor shortages.

Despite the progress made in some countries, I am also aware of others that are still resistant to digitizing their economy and automating operations. What’s the difference between firms that are digital leaders and those that are slow to mature? From my perspective in working with a variety of businesses throughout Europe, it’s a combination of diversity and technology availability.

digital transformation self-assessment

Source: “The Next Steps in Digital Transformation: How Small and Midsize Companies Are Applying Technology to Meet Key Business Goals with Insights for Europe,” IDC InfoBrief, sponsored by SAP, 2017. 

Opportunities abound with digital transformation

European companies are hardly homogenous. Comprising 47 countries across the continent, they serve communities that speak any of 225 spoken languages. Each one is experiencing various stages of digital development, economic stability, and workforce needs.

Nevertheless, as a whole, European firms do prioritize customer acquisition as well as improving efficiency and reducing costs. Over one-third of small and midsize companies are investing in collaboration software, customer relationship management solutions, e-commerce platforms, analytics, and talent management applications. Steadily, business leaders are finding better ways to go beyond data collection by applying predictive analytics to gain real-time insight from predictive analytics and machine learning to automate processes where possible.

Small and midsize businesses have a distinct advantage in this area over their larger rivals because they can, by nature, adopt new technology and practices quickly and act on decisions with greater agility. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of European firms are embracing the early stages of digitalization and planning to mature over time. Yet, the level of adoption depends solely on the leadership team’s commitment.

For many small and midsize companies across this region, the path to digital maturity resides in the cloud, more so than on-premise software deployment. For example, the flexibility associated with cloud deployment is viewed as a top attribute, especially among U.K. firms. This brings us back to the diversity of our region. Some countries prioritize personal data security while others may be more concerned with the ability to access the information they need in even the most remote of areas.

Technology alone does not deliver digital transformation

Digital transformation is certainly worth the effort for European firms. Between 60%–90% of small and midsize European businesses say their technology investments have met or exceeded their expectations – indicative of the steady, powerhouse transitions enabled by cloud computing. Companies are now getting the same access to the latest technology, data storage, and IT resources.

However, it is also important to note that a cloud platform is only as effective as the long-term digital strategy that it enables. To invigorate transformative changes, leadership needs to go beyond technology and adopt a mindset that embraces new ideas, tests the fitness of business models and processes continuously, and allows the flexibility to evolve the company as quickly as market dynamics change. By taking a step back and integrating digital objectives throughout the business strategy, leadership can pull together the elements needed to turn technology investments into differentiating, sustainable change. For example, the best talent with the right skills is hired. Plus, partners and suppliers with a complementary or shared digital vision and capability are onboarded.

The IDC Infobrief confirms what I have known all along: Small and midsize businesses are beginning to digitally mature and maintain a strategy that is relevant to their end-to-end processes. And furthering their digital transformation go hand in hand with the firms’ ability to ignite a transformational force that will likely progress Europe’s culture, social structure, and economy. 

To learn how small and midsize businesses across Europe are digitally transforming themselves to advance their future success, check out the IDC InfoBrief “The Next Steps in Digital Transformation: How Small and Midsize Companies Are Applying Technology to Meet Key Business Goals with Insights for Europe,” sponsored by SAP. For more region-specific perspectives on digital transformation, be sure to check every Tuesday for new installments to our blog series “The Road to Digital Transformation.”

 

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Katja Mehl

About Katja Mehl

Katja Mehl is Head of Marketing for Europe, Middle East, and Africa at SAP.